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Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

Päihdepolitiikka, tiedotusvälineet, lainsäädäntö
Alueen säännöt
Politiikka ja media
Tämä alue on tarkoitettu kannabis- ja päihdepolitiikasta keskusteluun.

Alue on erittäin tiukasti moderoitu; lue ohjeet ennen kirjoittamista. Alueelle kuulumattomat keskustelut siirretään Tuhkakuppiin.
Kirjoita viestisi asialliseen ulkoasuun. Ylläpidolla on oikeus muuttaa epäasiallisen viestin sisältöä tai poistaa viesti.
Joska
Viestit: 12
Liittynyt: 17.2.2007

Hampun lääkinnällinen käyttö

ViestiKirjoittaja Joska » 6.3.2007 9:15

Hei!

Tässä Harm Reduction Coalitionin keräämät linkit uusimpiin tutkimuksiin,
jotka koskevat lääkinnällistä kannabiksen käyttöä

http://www.mapinc.org/newshrc/v07/n269/a02.html?343

Sellasta

Joska

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Janus
3 tähteä
3 tähteä
Viestit: 482
Liittynyt: 16.2.2006

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja Janus » 17.8.2007 11:17

En haulla löytänyt, että olisi jo ollut:

http://www.kantti.net/ajankohtaisohjelm ... 0516.shtml

Kannabiksesta lääkettä - miksi ja miten?

Kuopion yliopistossa kehitetty menetelmä tehostaa kannabiksen käyttöä lääkkeenä. Proviisori Janne Mannilan väitöstutkimuksessa syntynyt lääkekeksintö auttaa hermoperäisestä kivusta sekä voimakkaasta pahoinvoinnista kärsiviä potilaita. Uusi menetelmä mahdollistaa kannabiksen vaikuttavien aineiden tehokaan ja turvallisen annostelun.

Suorat linkit itse asiaan eli Janne Mannilan haastattelu (5'39") kannabiksesta lääkkeenä:

http://ra2.kantti.net/?real=ajankohtais ... 0705161.rm

http://media.kantti.net/ajankohtaisohje ... 705161.mp3

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GuestoSupriso
Viestit: 193
Liittynyt: 12.10.2005

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja GuestoSupriso » 27.9.2007 21:31

Tosi pätevät sivut:

Jon Gettmanin http://www.drugscience.org.
Kasvaa se mua muatessaki.

SamSon
Viestit: 90
Liittynyt: 11.9.2004

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja SamSon » 5.10.2007 23:01

Cannabis tea revisited: A systematic evaluation of the cannabinoid composition of cannabis tea
Arno Hazekampa, Krishna Bastolaa, Hassan Rashidia, Johan Benderb and Rob Verpoorte
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 113, Issue 1, 15 August 2007, Pages 85-90.

Cannabis is one of the oldest known medicinal plants, and a large variety of biological activities have been described. The main constituents, the cannabinoids, are thought to be most important for these activities. Although smoking of cannabis is by far the most common way of consumption, a significant part of medicinal users consume it in the form of a tea. However, not much is known about the composition of cannabis tea, or the effect of different parameters during preparation, handling or storage. In this study we used the high-grade cannabis available in Dutch pharmacies to study the cannabinoid composition of tea under standardized and quantitative conditions. Experimental conditions were systematically varied in order to mimic the possible variations made by medicinal users. During analysis there was a specific focus on the cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol and its acidic precursor, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. Also the role of non-psychoactivenext term cannabinoids as components of cannabis tea are discussed. The results obtained in this study provide a clear quantitative insight in the phytochemistry of cannabis tea preparation and can contribute to a better appreciation of this mode of cannabis administration.

Science Direct


Stability of cannabinoids in dried samples of cannabis dating from around 1896–1905
D. J. Harvey
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 28, Issue 1, February 1990, Pages 117-128.

Cannabinoids from three samples of previous cannabis obtained from the Pitt-Rivers Museum, Oxford, and dating from the turn of the century were examined by gas chromatography and mass spectometry for the presence of cannabinoids. Although the samples were from different geographical locations, the profiles of constituent cannabinoids were similar. In common with other aged material, most of the cannabinoid content was present as cannabinol (CBN), the main chemical degradation product of the major psychoactive constituent, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC). However, a substantial concentration of CBN acid-A was also present; this compound is unstable to heat and readily undergoes decarboxylation to CBN. Methyl and propyl homologues of CBN, together with delta-9-THC and its naturally occurring acid-A were also found at low concentrations in all samples. Intermediates in the formation of CBN from delta-9-THC, previously identified in aged solutions of the drug, were absent or present in only trace concentrations. However, oxidation products involving hydroxylation at the benzylic positions, C-11 and C-1′, not seen in solution, were identified in substantial abundance. The results suggest that decomposition of previous cannabis samples may proceed more slowly than originally thought.

Science Direct


Cannabinoids in medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential
Mohamed Ben Amar
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 105, Issues 1-2, 21 April 2006, Pages 1-25

In order to assess the current knowledge on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids, a meta-analysis was performed through Medline and PubMed up to July 1, 2005. The key words used were cannabis,next term marijuana, marihuana, hashish, hashich, haschich, cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, dronabinol, nabilone, levonantradol, randomised, randomized, double-blind, simple blind, placebo-controlled, and human. The research also included the reports and reviews published in English, French and Spanish. For the final selection, only properly controlled clinical trials were retained, thus open-label studies were excluded.

Seventy-two controlled studies evaluating the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids were identified. For each clinical trial, the country where the project was held, the number of patients assessed, the type of study and comparisons done, the products and the dosages used, their efficacy and their adverse effects are described. Cannabinoids present an interesting therapeutic potential as antiemetics, appetite stimulants in debilitating diseases (cancer and AIDS), analgesics, and in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, Tourette's syndrome, epilepsy and glaucoma.

Science Direct


Cannabinoid physiology term and pharmacology: 30 years of progress
Allyn C. Howlett, Christopher S. Breivogelb, Steven R. Childersc, Samuel A. Deadwylerc, Robert E. Hampsonc and Linda J. Porrinoc
Neuropharmacology. Volume 47, Supplement 1, 2004, Pages 345-358

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol from Cannabis sativa is mimicked by cannabimimetic analogs such as CP55940 and WIN55212-2, and antagonized by rimonabant and SR144528, through G-protein-coupled receptors, CB1 in the brain, and CB2 in the immune system. Eicosanoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are the “endocannabinoid” agonists for these receptors. CB1 receptors are abundant in basal ganglia, hippocampus and cerebellum, and their functional activity can be mapped during behaviors using cerebral metabolism as the neuroimaging tool. CB1 receptors couple to Gi/o to inhibit cAMP production, decrease Ca2+ conductance, increase K+ conductance, and increase mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. Functional activation of G-proteins can be imaged by [35S]GTPγS autoradiography. Post-synaptically generated endocannabinoids form the basis of a retrograde signaling mechanism referred to as depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) or excitation (DSE). Under circumstances of sufficient intracellular Ca2+ (e.g., burst activity in seizures), synthesis of endocannabinoids releases a diffusible retrograde messenger to stimulate presynaptic CB1 receptors. This results in suppression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release, thereby relieving the post-synaptic inhibition. Tolerance develops as neurons adjust both receptor number and cellular signal transduction to the chronic administration of previous termcannabinoidnext term drugs. Future therapeutic drug design can progress based upon our current understanding of the previous termphysiologynext term and pharmacology of CB1, CB2 and related receptors. One very important role for CB1 antagonists will be in the treatment of craving in the disease of substance abuse.

Science Direct


The endocannabinoid system: Body weight and metabolic regulation
MD Stefan Engeli and MD Jens Jordana
Clinical Cornerstone. Volume 8, Supplement 4, 2006, Pages S24-S35

he endocannabinoid system elicits multiple physiologic functions that are not fully understood. Antagonism of cannabinoidnext term type 1 (CB1) receptors has been the only successful new pharmacologic treatment approach in Phase III studies in obesity in the last 8 years. Whereas antagonism of (CB1) receptors acutely reduces food intake, the long-term effects on weight reduction and metabolic regulation appear to be mediated by stimulation of energy expenditure and by peripheral effects related to liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and pancreas previous termphysiology.next term For example, in the liver, lipogenic enzymes and fatty acid synthesis are upregulated by endocannabinoids, and in adipose tissue, antagonism of (CB1) receptors increases secretion of adiponectin. Some studies suggest that endocannabinoid formation is increased in obesity, perhaps because endocannabinoid degradation is decreased. Although many questions remain unanswered at present, the emerging concept of endocannabinoids as metabolic regulators helps to explain the success of rimonabant (SR141716), an antagonist of (CB1) receptors, currently in Phase III studies.

Science Direct


Endocannabinoids and Related Compounds: Walking Back and Forth between Plant Natural Products and Animal Physiologynext term
Vincenzo Di Marzo, Tiziana Bisogno and Luciano De Petrocellis
Chemistry and Biology. Volume 14, Issue 7, 30 July 2007, Pages 741-756.

Cannabis sativa has been known, used, and misused by mankind for centuries, and yet only over the last two decades has research stemming from the chemical constituents specific to this plant, the previous termcannabinoids,next term started to provide fundamental insights into animal previous termphysiologynext term and pathology, resulting in the development of new therapeutics. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system, and its targeting with two new pharmaceutical preparations now on the market in several countries, represent the most recent example of how studies on medicinal plants and on the mechanism of their biological effects can reveal, through a chain of breakthroughs, new systems of endogenous signals and physiological phenomena that can become the source of novel strategies for unmet therapeutic challenges.

Science Direct

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PossEdmonton
Viestit: 29
Liittynyt: 26.9.2007

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja PossEdmonton » 14.10.2007 19:51

Public release date: 14-Oct-2007
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/ ... 101207.php

Contact: Professor Raphael Mechoulam
mechou@cc.huji.ac.il
European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
The endocannabinoids: Functional roles and therapeutic opportunities

Cannabis (marijuana) is the most widely produced plant-based illicit drug worldwide and the illegal drug most frequently used in Europe. Its use increased in almost all EU countries during the 1990s, in particular among young people, including school students. Cannabis use is highest among 15- to 24-year-olds, with lifetime prevalence ranging for most countries from 20–40% (EMCDDA 2006).

Recently there has been a new surge in the level of concern about potential social and health outcomes of cannabis use, although the available evidence still does not provide a clear-cut understanding of the issues. Intensive cannabis use is correlated with non-drug-specific mental problems, but the question of co-morbidity is intertwined with the questions of cause and effect (EMCDDA 2006). Prevention is of importance in adolescents, which is underlined by evidence that early-onset cannabis-users (pre- to mid-adolescence) have a significantly higher risk of developing drug problems, including dependence (Von Sydow et al., 2002; Chen et al., 2005).

The illegal status and wide-spread use of cannabis made basic and clinical cannabis research difficult in the past decades; on the other hand, it has stimulated efforts to identify the psychoactive constituents of cannabis. As a consequence, the endocannabinoid system was discovered, which was shown to be involved in most physiological systems – the nervous, the cardiovascular, the reproductive, the immune system, to mention a few.

One of the main roles of endocannabinoids is neuroprotection, but over the last decade they have been found to affect a long list of processes, from anxiety, depression, cancer development, vasodilatation to bone formation and even pregnancy (Panikashvili et al., 2001; Pachter et al., 2006).

Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are supposed to represent a medicinal treasure trove which waits to be discovered.

What is the endocannabinoid system?

In the 1960s the constituent of the cannabis plant was discovered – named tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC – which causes the 'high' produced by it (Gaoni & Mechoulam, 1964). Thousands of publications have since appeared on THC. Today it is even used as a therapeutic drug against nausea and for enhancing appetite, and, surprisingly, has not become an illicit drug – apparently cannabis users prefer the plant-based marijuana and hashish.

Two decades later it was found that THC binds to specific receptors in the brain and the periphery and this interaction initiates a cascade of biological processes leading to the well known marijuana effects. It was assumed that a cannabinoid receptor is not formed for the sake of a plant constituent (that by a strange quirk of nature binds to it), but for endogenous brain constituents and that these putative 'signaling' constituents together with the cannabinoid receptors are part of a new biochemical system in the human body, which may affect various physiological actions. In trying to identify these unknown putative signaling molecules, our research group in the 1990s was successful in isolating 2 such endogenous 'cannabinoid' components – one from the brain, named anandamide (from the word ´ananda, meaning ´supreme joy´ in Sanscrit), and another one from the intestines named 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) (Devane et al., 1992; Mechoulam et al., 1995).

Neuroprotection

The major endocannabinoid (2-AG) has been identified both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Stressful stimuli – traumatic brain injury (TBI) for example – enhance brain 2-AG levels in mice. 2-AG, both of endogenous and exogenous origin, has been shown to be neuroprotective in closed head injury, ischemia and excitotoxicity in mice. These effects may derive from the ability of cannabinoids to act through a variety of biochemical mechanisms. 2-AG also helps repair the blood brain barrier after TBI. The endocannabinoids act via specific cannabinoid receptors, of which the CB1 receptors are most abundant in the central nervous system. Mice whose CB1 receptors are knocked out display slower functional recovery after TBI and do not respond to treatment with 2-AG. Over the last few years several groups have noted that CB2 receptors are also formed in the brain, particularly as a reaction to numerous neurological diseases, and are apparently activated by the endocannabinoids as a protective mechanism.

Through evolution the mammalian body has developed various systems to guard against damage that may be caused by external attacks. Thus, it has an immune system, whose main role is to protect against protein attacks (microbes, parasites for example) and to reduce the damage caused by them. Analogous biological protective systems have also been developed against non-protein attacks, although they are much less well known than the immune system. Over the last few years the research group of Esther Shohami in collaboration with our group showed that the endocannabinoid system, through various biological routes, lowers the damage caused by brain trauma. Thus, it helps to attenuate the brain edema and the neurological injuries caused by it (Panikashvili et al., 2001; Panikashvili et al., 2006).

Clinical importance

Furthermore it is assumed that the endocannabinoid system may be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, a neuropsychiatric syndrome induced by fulminant hepatic failure. Indeed in an animal model the brain levels of 2-AG were found to be elevated. Administration of 2-AG improved a neurological score, activity and cognitive function (Avraham et al., 2006). Activation of the CB2 receptor by a selective agonist also improved the neurological score. The authors concluded that the endocannabinoid system may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Modulation of this system either by exogenous agonists specific for the CB2 receptors or possibly also by antagonists to the CB1 receptors may have therapeutic potential. The endocannabinoid system generally is involved in the protective reaction of the mammalian body to a long list of neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Thus, there is hope for novel therapeutic opportunities.

Numerous additional endocannabinoids – especially various fatty acid ethanolamides and glycerol esters – are known today and regarded as members of a large ´endocannabinoid family´. Endogenous cannabinoids, the cannabinoid receptors and various enzymes that are involved in their syntheses and degradations comprise the endocannabinoid system.

The endocannabinoid system acts as a guardian against various attacks on the mammalian body.

Conclusion

The above described research concerning the endocannabinoid-system is of importance in both basic science and in therapeutics:

--> The discovery of the cannabis plant active constituent has helped advance our understanding of cannabis use and its effects.

--> The discovery of the endocannabinoids has been of central importance in establishing the existence of a new biochemical system and its physiological roles – in particular in neuroprotection.

--> These discoveries have opened the door for the development of novel types of drugs, such as THC for the treatment of nausea and for enhancing appetite in cachectic patients.

--> The endocannabinoid system is involved in the protective reaction of the mammalian body to a long list of neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease which raises hope for novel therapeutic opportunities for these diseases.

###

References

Avraham Y, Israeli E, Gabbay E, et al. Endocannabinoids affect neurological and cognitive function in thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy in mice. Neurobiology of Disease 2006;21:237-245

Chen CY, O´Brien MS, Anthony JC. Who becomes cannabis dependent soon after onset of use" Epidemiological evidence from the United States: 2000-2001. Drug and alcohol dependence 2005;79:11-22

Devane WA, Hanus L, Breuer A, et al. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science 1992;258:1946-1949

[EMCDDA 2006] European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. The state of the drugs problem in Europe. Annual Report 2006 (www.emcdda.europa.eu)

Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. Isolation, structure and partial synthesis of an active constituent of hashish. J Amer Chem Soc 1964;86:1646-1647

Journal Interview 85: Conversation with Raphael Mechoulam. Addiction 2007;102:887-893

Mechoulam R, Ben-Shabat S, Hanus L, et al. Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 1995;50:83-90

Mechoulam R, Panikashvili D, Shohami E. Cannabinoids and brain injury. Trends Mol Med 2002;8:58-61

Pachter P, Batkai S, Kunos G. The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacol Rev 2006;58:389-462

Panikashvili D, Simeonidou C, Ben-Shabat S, et al. An endogenous cannabinoid (2-AG) is neuroprotective after brain injury. Nature 2001;413:527-531

Panikashvili D, Shein NA, Mechoulam R, et al. The endocannabinoid 2-AG protects the blood brain barrier after closed head injury and inhibits mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Neurobiol Disease 2006;22:257-264

Von Sydow K, Lieb R, Pfister H, et al. What predicts incident use of cannabis and progression to abuse and dependence" A 4-year prospective examination of risk factors in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Drug and alcohol dependence 2002;68:49-64



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GuestoSupriso
Viestit: 193
Liittynyt: 12.10.2005

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja GuestoSupriso » 31.5.2008 15:44

Home Office Cannabis Potency Study 2008:

http://drugs.homeoffice.gov.uk/publicat ... iew=Binary

"The mean THC concentration (potency) of the sinsemilla samples was 16.2%
(range = 4.1 to 46%). The median potency was 15.0%, close to values reported
by others in the past few years."

"The mean potency of cannabis resin was 5.9% (range = 1.3 to 27.8%). The
median = 5.0% was typical of values reported by others over many years."

Kaunis kuku kannessa :D
Kasvaa se mua muatessaki.

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Planta
Viestit: 604
Liittynyt: 5.11.2001

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja Planta » 18.8.2008 17:45

Kannabidiolipitoinen kannabis vähemmän haitallista?
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1837 ... d_RVDocSum

Kannabidiolipitoinen kannabis aiheuttaa vähemmän psykoosioireita kuin kannabis, jossa on enimmäkseen delta9-tetrahydrokannabinolia (THC). Kannabiskasvin päihdevaikutukset välittyvät THC:n kautta, mutta kannabiskasvi sisältää myös useita muita kannabinoideja. Eräs mielenkiintoisimmista on kannabidioli, jolla ei ole todettu päihdyttäviä mutta sen sijaan anksiolyyttisia ja antipsykoottisia vaikutuksia.

Brittitutkimuksessa havaittiin, että skitsofreniaoireiden kaltaiset positiiviset psykoosioireet olivat yleisempiä henkilöillä, joiden hiusnäytteestä löytyi ainoastaan THC:tä, verrattuna niihin, joilla havaittiin myös kannabidiolia. Harhaluuloista ajattelua esiintyi THC-ryhmässä enemmän kuin henkilöillä, joiden hiusnäytteestä ei löytynyt lainkaan kannabinoideja.

Kannabiksen on havaittu lisäävän psykoosiin sairastumisen riskiä, ja kannabiskasvin THC-pitoisuutta on viime vuosikymmeninä pyritty lisäämään jalostamalla päihtymystarkoitusta varten. Kysymykseksi jää, millainen vaikutus kannabiskasvien THC-pitoisuuksien kasvulla on psykoosisairauksien ilmaantuvuuteen.
(Morgan CJ ym. Br J Psychiatry 2008;192:306) -Solja Niemelä :mrgreen:

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Planta
Viestit: 604
Liittynyt: 5.11.2001

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja Planta » 19.8.2008 20:14

Lähetetty 19 Elo 2008 17:44:
Alcohol, illicit drugs and medicinal drugs in fatally injured drivers in Spain between 1991 and 2000.Carmen del Río M, Gómez J, Sancho M, Alvarez FJ.
Drugs and Alcohol Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Spain.

The aim of this study was to assess the presence of alcohol, illicit drugs and medicinal drugs among Spanish drivers involved in fatal road accidents between 1991 and 2000. Samples were obtained for 5745 drivers killed in road accidents from January 1991 to December 2000. Of the samples, 91.7% represented males and 8.3% females; 40.7% were under 30 years of age, 31.9% were under 31-50 years of age, 19.5% were over 51 years of age, and for 7.9% the age was unknown. Between 1991 and 2000, some type of psychoactive substance was detected among 50.1% of those drivers killed in road accidents, this being mainly alcohol (43.8%) and, less frequently, illicit drugs (8.8%) and medicinal drugs (4.7%). In all the cases, in which alcohol was detected, combined use with other substances accounted for only 12.5%, whilst in the case of illicit and medicinal drugs, figures representing combined use with other substances were 75.6% for the former and 65.8% for the latter. For one in every three cases (32.0%), a blood alcohol level over 0.8 g/l was recorded; cocaine (5.2%), opiates (3.2%) and cannabis (2.2%) were the three illicit drugs most frequently detected. Among medicinal drugs, were benzodiazepines (3.4%), anti-depressant drugs (0.6%) and analgesics (0.4%). The results show the frequent presence of psychoactive substances, particularly alcohol, among Spanish motor vehicle users involved in fatal road accidents. It should be pointed out that illicit and medicinal drugs in combination with other substances were a common feature.



Lisätty 2 tunnin 38 minuutin jälkeen:

Hasis ja lipidienkuljetusproteiinit (kannabis & allergia)

Hamppu (Cannabis sativa) on ollut vuoden alussa esillä mediassa lähinnä sen takia, että sen kotiviljely marihuanan tuottamiseksi on lisääntynyt Suomessa nopeasti. Pöllyssä olevia potilaita voi siis näkyä päivystysyksiköissä aikaisempaa enemmän. Johonkin aivojen sopukkaan kannattaa kätkeä tieto, että marin polttaminen tai jopa passiivinen altistuminen sen savulle voi laukaista anafylaktisen reaktion (Gamboa P ym. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;120:1459).

Tästä kertova tapausselostus, koskee 28-vuotiasta miestä, joka ei tiettävästi ollut aiemmin saanut allergiareaktioita mistään. Mies viljeli itse hamppua ja alkoi saada kasvin koskettelusta kosketusurtikariaa, sitten polttaessa yhä vakavampia oireita ja lopulta passiivisesta savulle altistumisesta anafylaksiaa. Allergeeniksi paljastui marihuanan lipidienkuljetusproteiini (LTP) (Can s3), joka reagoi ristiin persikka-LTP:n Pru p3:n kanssa.

Lipidienkuljetusproteiineja on kaikissa kasveissa. Ne aiheuttavat anafylaktisten reaktioiden lisäksi astmaa, allergista nuhaa ja laajaa atooppista ihottumaa. Vaikka LTP:t ovat rakenteeltaan pitkälti samanlaisia, ristiallergia niiden välillä koskee pääasiassa ruusukasveja, kuten persikkaa, kirsikkaa, omenaa, päärynää ja mantelia. Ristiallergialuetteloon kuuluu myös muuntyyppisiä kasveja, esimerkkeinä viinirypäle, salaatti, parsa ja kaalit sekä viljakasveista maissi ja ohra. Luetteloon kannattaa nyt lisätä marihuana. LTP-allergeenit kestävät muuttumattomina melkein millaisen käsittelyn tahansa. Persikka-LTP-IgE vasta-ainemääritystä verestä käytetään yleisesti LTP-allergian seulontatestinä. Ruusukasvi-LTP-allergian kiharuutta lisää myös tieto, että omenalajikkeiden LTP-määrien välillä on satakertaisia eroja (Sancho AI ym. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2007;146:19). -MaHa

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Janus
3 tähteä
3 tähteä
Viestit: 482
Liittynyt: 16.2.2006

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja Janus » 24.8.2008 14:08

http://www.encod.org/info/IMG/pdf/Finnishreport.pdf

European Alternatives in Drug Policy

Muistio Euroopan parlamentin vihreän- ja vasemmistoryhmän yhdessä ENCOD-järjestön kanssa järjestämässä seurantakonferenssista "Matkalla kohti Wieniä 2000"

Erinomainen katsaus huumausainepolitiikkaan ja sen seurauksiin.

jok79
Viestit: 49
Liittynyt: 14.3.2002

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja jok79 » 23.11.2008 22:35

Tällainen sattui silmään kun etsin kunnollista tutkimusta kannabiksen aiheuttamasta riippuvuudesta.

New National Drug Strategy Monograph Series report: 'Cannabis and Mental Health: Put into Context'

The Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing has just released the report Cannabis and Mental Health: Put into Context, as part of its National Drug Strategy Monograph Series.

http://ncpic.org.au/assets/downloads/ncpic/news/ncpic-news/new-national-drug-strategy-monograph-series-report-cannabis-and-mental-health-put-into-context.pdf

"There is consistent evidence from cross-sectional research, undertaken on a group of
people on one occasion, that cannabis use and schizophrenia occur together more often
than would be expected by chance. Additionally, the major cohort studies assessing the
relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia over time found a relatively consistent
relationship between cannabis and psychotic symptoms, but only a minority of the studies
reported a significant relationship between cannabis use and the subsequent development
of a psychotic disorder. The distinction between psychotic symptoms and a diagnosable
mental health disorder is important, as psychotic symptoms are reported by many people
who would never be diagnosed as psychotic and for whom their impact is minimal."

"It is unlikely that eliminating the supply of cannabis, if this could be accomplished,
would eradicate the motivation to use it. Most cannabis users report that they would
substitute another drug, usually alcohol, in its absence."

Panthera
1 tähti
1 tähti
Viestit: 227
Liittynyt: 3.2.2005

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja Panthera » 26.11.2008 5:42

jok79 kirjoitti:...etsin kunnollista tutkimusta kannabiksen aiheuttamasta riippuvuudesta.


En tiedä löysitkö, mutta tää lienee aika pätevä, keskittyy tosin pääasiassa eläinkokeissa saatuihin tuloksiin. Kohdasta 4.1 Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal ja erityisesti sen lähdeviitteistä löytyy tosin jotain ihmisistäkin. Jotain uusiakin kliinisiä tutkimustuloksia saattanut tulla tämän jälkeen.

En tiedä löytyiskö tota jostain netin syövereistä onlinena, mutta ainakin teoksesta Cannabinoids, jonka voi ladata täältä.


Cannabinoid tolerance and dependence.

Lichtman AH, Martin BR.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 410 North 12th Street, P.O. Box 980613, Richmond, VA 23298-0613, USA. alichtma@hsc.vcu.edu

The use of marijuana for recreational and medicinal purposes has resulted in a large prevalence of chronic marijuana users. Consequences of chronic cannabinoid administration include profound behavioral tolerance and withdrawal symptoms upon drug cessation. A marijuana withdrawal syndrome is only recently gaining acceptance as being clinically significant. Similarly, laboratory animals exhibit both tolerance and dependence following chronic administration of cannabinoids. These animal models are being used to evaluate the high degree of plasticity that occurs at the molecular level in various brain regions following chronic cannabinoid exposure. In this review, we describe recent advances that have increased our understanding of the impact of chronic cannabinoid administration on cannabinoid receptors and their signal transduction pathways. Additionally, we discuss several potential pharmacotherapies that have been examined to treat marijuana dependence.

PMID: 16596793 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

SamSon
Viestit: 90
Liittynyt: 11.9.2004

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja SamSon » 27.1.2009 2:52

Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse.
Lancet. 2007 Mar 24;369(9566):1047-53
Nutt D, King LA, Saulsbury W, Blakemore C.

Drug misuse and abuse are major health problems. Harmful drugs are regulated according to classification systems that purport to relate to the harms and risks of each drug. However, the methodology and processes underlying classification systems are generally neither specified nor transparent, which reduces confidence in their accuracy and undermines health education messages. We developed and explored the feasibility of the use of a nine-category matrix of harm, with an expert delphic procedure, to assess the harms of a range of illicit drugs in an evidence-based fashion. We also included five legal drugs of misuse (alcohol, khat, solvents, alkyl nitrites, and tobacco) and one that has since been classified (ketamine) for reference. The process proved practicable, and yielded roughly similar scores and rankings of drug harm when used by two separate groups of experts. The ranking of drugs produced by our assessment of harm differed from those used by current regulatory systems. Our methodology offers a systematic framework and process that could be used by national and international regulatory bodies to assess the harm of current and future drugs of abuse.

http://www.maps.org/w3pb/new/2007/2007_Nutt_22898_1.pdf

Comment in:
Lancet. 2007 Jun 2;369(9576):1856-7; author reply 1857.
Lancet. 2007 Jun 2;369(9576):1856; author reply 1857.
Lancet. 2007 Mar 24;369(9566):972.

PubMed



A cannabis reader: global issues and local experiences
EMCDDA, Lisbon, June 2008

The EMCDDA’s cannabis monograph addresses one basic question. How can I find quality information on cannabis, amid all the bias and opinion? The monograph is divided into two volumes. The first volume centres on political, legislative, commercial and social developments relating to cannabis. Its core audience thus comprises policymakers, sociologists, historians, journalists and those involved in enforcement. The second volume is targeted at drugs professionals working in the fields of treatment, prevention and healthcare.

http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/monographs/cannabis

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HL1979
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Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja HL1979 » 12.3.2009 12:26

Cannabinoids and schizophrenia: where is the link?

http://www.cannabis-med.org/english/jou ... 8_04_1.pdf

Abstract
Highlighting the association between schizophrenia and cannabis sativa and the endogenous cannabinoid
receptor system, respectively, two opposite aspects are of major relevance. On the one
hand, there is substantial evidence that cannabis has to be classified as an independent risk factor
for psychosis that may lead to a worse outcome of the disease. This risk seems to be increased in
genetically predisposed people and may depend on the amount of cannabis used. On the other
hand, there are several lines of evidence suggesting that, at least in a subgroup of patients, alterations
in the endocannabinoid system may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, e.g., increased
density of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) binding and increased levels of cerebrospinal
fluid (CSF) anandamide. Accordingly, beside the „dopamine hypothesis“ of schizophrenia a „cannabinoid
hypothesis“ has been suggested. Interestingly, there is a complex interaction between the
dopaminergic and the cannabinoid receptor system. Thus, agents that interact with the cannabinoid
receptor system such as the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) have been suggested for the
treatment of psychosis.

Keywords: Cannabis, THC, tetrahydrocannabinol, schizophrenia, psychosis
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HL1979
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Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja HL1979 » 4.4.2009 13:18

Active Ingredient in Marijuana Kills Brain Cancer Cells
Experts say finding worth further study, but patients shouldn't light up just yet
Posted April 1, 2009

By Alan Mozes
HealthDay Reporter

WEDNESDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- New research out of Spain suggests that THC -- the active ingredient in marijuana -- appears to prompt the death of brain cancer cells.

The finding is based on work with mice designed to carry human cancer tumors, as well as from an analysis of THC's impact on tumor cells extracted from two patients coping with a highly aggressive form of brain cancer.

Explaining that the introduction of THC into the brain triggers a cellular self-digestion process known as "autophagy," study co-author Guillermo Velasco said his team has isolated the specific pathway by which this process unfolds, and noted that it appears "to kill cancer cells, while it does not affect normal cells."

Velasco is with the department of biochemistry and molecular biology in the School of Biology at Complutense University in Madrid. The findings were published in the April issue of The Journal of Clinical Investigation.

The Spanish researchers focused on two patients suffering from "recurrent glioblastoma multiforme," a fast-moving form of brain cancer. Both patients had been enrolled in a clinical trial designed to test THC's potential as a cancer therapy.

Using electron microscopes to analyze brain tissue taken both before and after a 26- to 30-day THC treatment regimen, the researchers found that THC eliminated cancer cells while it left healthy cells intact.

The team also was able, in what it described as a "novel" discovery, to track the signaling route by which this process was activated.

These findings were replicated in work with mice, which had been "engineered" to carry three different types of human cancer tumor grafts.

"These results may help to design new cancer therapies based on the use of medicines containing the active principle of marijuana and/or in the activation of autophagy," Velasco said.

Outside experts suggested that more research is needed before advocating marijuana as a medicinal intervention for brain cancer.

Dr. John S. Yu, co-director of the Comprehensive Brain Tumor Program in the Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, said the findings were "not surprising."

"There have been previous reports to this effect as well," he said. "So this is yet another indication that THC has an anti-cancer effect, which means it's certainly worth further study. But it does not suggest that one should jump at marijuana for a potential cure for cancer, and one should not urge anyone to start smoking pot right away as a means of curing their own cancer."

But that's exactly what many brain cancer patients have been doing, said Dr. Paul Graham Fisher, the Beirne Family director of Neuro-Oncology at Stanford University.

"In fact, 40 percent of brain tumor patients in the U.S. are already using alternative treatments, ranging from herbals to vitamins to marijuana," he said. "But that actually points out a cautionary tale here, which is that many brain cancer patients are already rolling a joint to treat themselves, but we're not really seeing brain tumors suddenly going away as a result, which we clearly would've noticed if it had that effect. So we need to be open-minded. But this suggests that the promise of THC might be a little over-hoped, and certainly requires further investigation before telling people to go out and roll a joint."

http://health.usnews.com/articles/healt ... ancer.html
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HL1979
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Developing Brains: Alcohol Worse than Marijuana

ViestiKirjoittaja HL1979 » 19.5.2009 13:49

Developing Brains: Alcohol Worse than Marijuana
March 26th, 2009 by Miranda Marquit Marijuana

Is marijuana less dangerous than alcohol?

(PhysOrg.com) -- It appears that when it comes to teen brain development, parents should be more worried about alcohol abuse than marijuana abuse. Two recent studies have been published showing that alcohol -- a legal substance (though not legal for teens in the U.S.) -- is considered more dangerous than marijuana, which is illegal in many countries.

One study has been published in the U.S., in the journal Clinical EEG and neuroscience: official journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS), and shows that alcohol has a stronger effect on teen brain development than marijuana. The other is a study published in the Lancet, offering the results of substance classification by a number of U.K. professionals, purporting that alcohol is more dangerous than marijuana to individuals and to society.

The U.S. study was undertaken by Squeglia, Jacobus and Tapert in a San Diego State University/University of California San Diego joint doctoral program. The study looks at teen brain development for its uniqueness, as well as for the effects that substance abuse has on the brain during this time. Because alcohol and marijuana are commonly used by high school students, it is little surprise that the study is interested in the brain abnormalities stemming from abuse of these substances.

When the brain abnormalities were measured -- seen in terms of brain functioning and structure, cognitive tasks and quality of white matter -- it appeared as though alcohol had a great effect than marijuana. Heavy drinking was defined 20 drinks per month, and the abnormalities were detectable. In heavy marijuana users, abnormalities existed, but not to the same degree as those seen in alcohol abusers.

Findings from the U.S. study, showing that alcohol use in teens causes more irregular brain function than marijuana, would seem to square with efforts in the U.K. to encourage new drug classification. In the Lancet, David Nutt at Bristol University, along with his colleagues, asked psychologists and scientifically or medically trained police to rank different substances according to how harmful they are. The study purports that experts rank alcohol (and tobacco) as more harmful than marijuana. In a list of 20 substances, alcohol came in at number five, tobacco came in at number nine, and marijuana/cannabis came in at number eleven.

These studies are likely to add fuel to movements in both the U.S. and the U.K. to re-classify marijuana. Supporters of fewer restrictions on marijuana will undoubtedly point to scientific studies that show we already legalize less dangerous substances.

http://www.physorg.com/news157280425.html
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åke pakana
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Liittynyt: 2.12.2004

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja åke pakana » 25.1.2010 8:02

mää säilön tän tänne, et sen sit taas muistaa kunm on tarve.

http://www.stakes.fi/yp/2000/6/006saarnio.pdf
kui mä vallan vedän pöllit, enne ko mä ruppe kirjottelema tervessi ja muit jaarituksi ?

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Televisio
Viestit: 87
Liittynyt: 29.5.2010

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja Televisio » 27.7.2010 1:11

Huumetilanne Suomessa 2009
http://www.thl.fi/thl-client/pdfs/47699 ... 441c4fd5ba

Sisältää mm. kustannusarvioita huumeiden ja niiden kontrollin kustannuksista yhteiskunnalle,
erityisteemoista löytyy otsikko Kannabismarkkinat ja -tuotanto, väliotsikkoina mm.
Asenteet kannabiksen käyttäjiä kohtaan. Lisäksi perustilastot kokeilusta ja käytöstä.

Kannabiksen käyttö, yhteiskunnallinen reagointi ja siihen vastaaminen
Kannabisaktivistien näkökulma
Taru Kekoni. Tampereen yliopisto.
http://acta.uta.fi/pdf/978-951-44-7151-3.pdf

Itselläni ei tuo väitöskirja lataudu oikein, sivuja puuttuu ym.

citykani
Viestit: 75
Liittynyt: 25.11.2009

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja citykani » 31.8.2010 7:24

Marijuana effective in reducing pain, study shows

Published on Monday, Aug. 30, 2010 12:01AM EDT


A team of Montreal researchers has lent scientific credibility to the view that smoking marijuana can ease chronic neuropathic pain and help patients sleep better.

People suffering from neuropathic pain often turn to opioids, antidepressants and local anesthetics, but those treatments have limitations and the side effects can be punishing. Many physicians and policy-makers, however, are reluctant to advocate the use of cannabis since there has been little scientific research into its effectiveness, even though patients champion its use.

The study, published Monday in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, found that pain intensity among patients decreased with higher-potency marijuana. It is one of a handful of scientific attempts to determine the medicinal benefits of the drug.

[...]

Artikkeli: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/hea ... le1689573/

Tutkimusraportti: http://www.cmaj.ca/embargo/cmaj091414.pdf

Islandsad
Viestit: 56
Liittynyt: 16.3.2010

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja Islandsad » 25.11.2010 18:51

Miksei tänne pistetä sitä harvardin uusinta kannabistutkimusta? Siksikö koska se kertoo kannabiksen negatiivisista vaikutuksista aivoihin? Sehän ei tietenkään hampuuseille käy päinsä!
Muutenkaan täällä ei suhtauduta läheskään yhtä kriittisesti (suhtaudutaanko lainkaan?) kannabiksesta positiiviseen sävyyn puhuviin uutisiin/tutkimuksiin.

No, pistetään sitten itse.

http://www.mclean.harvard.edu/news/pres ... rt-&id=162

Uutinen: http://www.uusisuomi.fi/ymparisto/10633 ... n%E2%80%9D

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Moniaste
Viestit: 2
Liittynyt: 31.10.2010

Re: Tutkimustulokset yhteen linkitettynä

ViestiKirjoittaja Moniaste » 27.11.2010 13:05

Tutkimuksessa kävi ilmi, että varhain lapsuudessa kannabiksen käytön aloittaneiden koehenkilöiden aivot käsittelivät asioita eri paikassa ja eri tavalla.

Samat vaikutuksethan alkoholikin aiheuttaa, jos pentuna alkaa käyttämään. Kaiken lisäks maksa menee. Vai luinko mä väärin ton jutun?


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